MONDAY, 17 JUNE
Registration and Welcome
12:00 - 13:00
Fundamentals of Lipid Biology and Metabolism
Dr. Simon Dyall, University of Roehampton (United Kingdom)
Lipids are a large and varied group of naturally occurring organic compounds that are related by their solubility in nonpolar organic solvents, and general insolubility in water. There is tremendous structural diversity among lipids, but they can be grouped into the following categories; fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids, prenol lipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides. This talk gives an overview of bioactive and physiologically important lipids, and provides the foundation for topics discussed over the course.
The focus of the talk will be on fatty acyls of physiological relevance, including omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), branched chain fatty acids, odd chain fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids, and fatty acid derivatives such as specialised pro-resolving mediators, oxylipins, electrophilic fatty acid oxo-derivatives, and non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites of PUFAs. Since many bioactive lipids are derivatives of fatty acids, and their metabolism is a fundamental part of lipid biochemistry, recent advances in fatty acid metabolism, including omega-3 and -6 PUFA pathways and alternative desaturation routes will be discussed. There will also be an overview of recent evidence suggesting a complex interplay between omega-3 and -6 PUFAs and the endocannabinoid system.
13:00 - 14:30
Fatty acid analysis and fatty acid-related lipidomics
Professor Tom Brenna, University of Texas (United States of America)
Determination of fatty acid composition is most rapidly accomplished by high resolution gas chromatography (GC) separation followed appropriate detection, normally flame ionization detection (FID) for quantitative analysis and one of various implementations of mass spectrometry (MS) for qualitative analysis (i.e. structure determination). Most fatty acids exist in esterified form that exchange via the actions of lipases and re-esterification enzymes, thus fatty acid composition is of direct interest apart from their distribution in lipid classes. Fatty acids/esters are typically converted to fatty acids methyl esters (FAME). GC coupled to FID is favored for quantitative analysis because of the stability and predictability of response so to be calibrated in a straightforward manner. The most common MS ionization method, electron ionization, can provide molecular weight but cannot be used to determine double bond structure. Proton-transfer chemical ionization usually gives strong FAME molecular weight signals but not double bond structure. Specialized esters such as 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) or picolinyl esters are required to determine double bond structure with single stage MS, or covalent adduct chemical ionization (CACI) tandem MS can be applied to FAME. Conventional lipidomics by electrospray ionization of underivatized lipid extracts do not resolve species with isomeric acyl chains or determine double bond structure; these require online ozonolysis (OzID), or ion mobility methods with chemical standards. Chain branching analysis can be determined by specialized methods both GC-tandem MS and in some cases, e.g. wax esters, by electrospray MS/MS. Examples of complex mixtures from humans and human foods will be explored.
15:00 - 16:30
Dr. Maria Valdivia Garcia, Cardiff University (United Kingdom)
17:00 - 18:00
TUESDAY, 18 JUNE
Pregnancy and Development
Prof. Susan Carlson, Kansas University Medical Center (United States of America)
9:00 - 10:30
Fatty acids and inflammatory processes
Prof. Philip Calder, Southampton University (United Kingdom)
Calder, P.C., Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1851, 2015, 469-484.
Calder, P.C., Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: from molecules to man. Biochemical Society Transactions 45, 2017, 1105-1115.
Innes, J.K., Calder, P.C., Omega-6 fatty acids and inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 132, 2018, 41-48.
11:00 - 12:30
Applications and Markets
Mr. Peter Clough, Cobden Research Ltd. (United Kingdom)
12:30 - 13:30
Ketones, medium chain fatty acids and brain energy metabolism: importance during infancy and aging
Prof. Stephen Cunnane, University of Sherbrooke (Canada)
Ketones are important brain fuels, brain lipid substrates and signalling molecules. They are derived from short, medium and long-chain fatty acids. The efficacy of their synthesis from fatty acids depends on several factors, especially metabolic status and insulin sensitivity. Ketones can be consumed directly as food supplements (salts, esters). Interest in their therapeutic potential has developed rapidly in the past 10 years. Our contribution in this field has been to – (i) compare the ketogenic potential of different fatty acids, (ii) measure brain ketone and glucose metabolism by PET imaging, (iii) develop potential ketoneurotherapeutics applicable to optimizing cognition during aging, (iv) undertake randomized controlled trials with potential ketoneurotherapeutics in people at risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
Recommended reading (PDF) - Croteau et al. 2018, Vandenberghe et al. 2017 and Cunnane et al. 2016
13:30 - 15:00
Lipids in Neurology
Prof. Adina Michael-Titus, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom)
The human nervous system is enriched in lipids which confer specific biophysical properties to cell membranes and also have a role in intracellular signalling. From neurotrauma to neurodegenerative disease, there is evidence that pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system can affect lipids, and interventions that attempt to correct such imbalance have significant therapeutic potential. The talk will focus on specific examples, i.e. brain and spinal cord injury, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, and will discuss experimental and clinical evidence which supports a potential for lipids in the management of these conditions. Key questions that remain to be answered will be highlighted and the talk will conclude with a discussion of past and present clinical studies.
The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's disease: Acting separately or synergistically? ~ Cai Song, Chu-Hsin Shiehb, Yi-ShyuanWub, Allan Kalueff, Siddharth Gaikwad, Kuan-Pin Su
15:30 - 17:00
WEDNESDAY, 19 JUNE
Prof. Clemens von Schacky, Munich University & Omegametrix (Germany)
Intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is inversely related to the occurrence of coronary artery disease. A clearer picture comes from measuring levels of EPA and DHA, specifically in erythrocytes with a standardized analytical procedure (“HS-Omega-3 Index®”). Total mortality, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarctions, cardiovascular disease, stroke and specifically sudden cardiac death are all inversely related to levels of EPA and DHA in erythrocytes. In intervention trials on surrogate parameters (e.g. blood pressure, heart rate or endothelial function) and on intermediate parameters (e.g. progression of coronary lesions or remodeling of the left ventricle after a myocardial infarction), increasing levels of EPA and DHA consistently resulted in improvements, and the improvements correlated with the increases in levels in erythrocytes. However, many large intervention trials with clinical endpoints, and most of their meta-analyses did not have positive results. Specific errors in the methodology of many trials have been identified that make results of these trials uninformative. In contrast, trials that – unintentionally – avoided these errors were largely positive, and a meta-analysis would certainly be positive. Very high levels of EPA and DHA appear to cause rare bleedings. Taken together, several lines of evidence support the conclusion that high levels of EPA and DHA protect from several cardiovascular diseases. In keeping, pertinent guidelines from the American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology recommend EPA and DHA, but at an unspecified dose, probably because the relation between dose ingested and levels achieved is loose. As an optimal target range for EPA and DHA, levels between 8 and 11 – 12 % in erythrocytes are suggested for avoiding premature mortality and many cardiovascular diseases.
von Schacky C. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease - an Uphill Battle. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2015;92:41-7
von Schacky C, Harris WS. Why Docosapentaenoic Acid Is Not Included in the Omega-3 Index. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2018;135:18-21
Harris WS, Tintle NL, Etherton MR, Vasan RS. Erythrocyte long-chain omega-3 fatty acid levels are inversely associated with mortality and with incident cardiovascular disease: The Framingham Heart Study. J Clin Lipidol. 2018;12:718-27
9:00 - 10:30
Prof. Francisco Molina-Hildalgo, University of Roehampton (United Kingdom)
11:00 - 12:30
Profiling the resolution metabolome: methodologies, considerations and applications
Dr. Jesmond Dalli, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom)
14:30 - 17:00